*Scalar
electromagnetics ***
**

The
term, "scalar" as a necessary attribute to all electromagnetic
phenomena was coined with fundamental equations that were introduced by **James
Clerk Maxwell **in the 1860s and extended by Sir **Edmund T. Whittaker** in
the early 1900s. Somehow, with time, "practical" engineers, not seeing
what they could "do" with scalar potentials overlooked and then
ignored them. In the early 1900s, **Nikola Tesla** applied these scalar
potentials for several technologies, which were ignored by the financiers of the
day - such as his system of the wireless transmission of electrical energy
worldwide and for various very successful electrotherapeutic devices. In the
1970s, Lt-Col. **Tom Bearden **re-introduced the modern notion of scalar
electromagnetics while a critical scientific experiment by **Y. Aharonov**
and Nobelist **David Bohm **proved that the interferometry of 2 scalar
potential beams results in "real" electromagnetic phenomena.
Conversely, scalar electromagnetics can be engineered by symmetrically annulling
like electromagnetic beams or waves. For example, in the ** Teslar**
device by

The 2 scalar potential
functions, *F* and *G* which completely characterize an electrodynamic
field for the fundamental case in which a field is due to any number of
electrons moving in any way are:

**F****
***(x, y, z, t)* =
*sinh*^{-1 }

**G**
(x, y, z, t) =*tan
^{–1} *

These photons have an independent physical existence. Whittaker himself observed, after computation that the “total disturbance at any point, due to this system of waves, is independent of the time, and is everywhere proportional to the gravitational potential due to the particle at the point”[1].

Everything electromagnetic,
and probably gravitational, starts from these scalar potentials, not fields, and
under certain circumstances, there may exist photons without fields being
present at all. In the *vacuo*, the longitudinal light photon travels in
the direction of the beam, like an energy capsule, as a scalar
four-potential-function energy standing-wave field, with many different
frequencies, with an internal symmetry based on circular polarization [2] [3],
an energy field or nexus that “has an end, but no beginning”. The time-like
and space-like parts of the four potential are photons with spin –1, 0 and +1
that are longitudinally directed, and which are observed in the ** Compton**
and the photoelectric effect[4].

[1] Whittaker, Edmund T.
*On the partial differential equations of mathematical physics*.
**Mathematische Annalen**. Volume 57, 1903. p. 354.

[3] Evans, Myron W., and S. Kielich (editors). Modern nonlinear optics. [Special topical issue of Ilya Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice: Advances in Chemical Physics. Wiley, New York 1992, 1993, 1997, and 2001] Volume 85 (2).

[4] Institute for Advanced
Study (Budapest). *On Whittaker’s F and G fluxes, Part III: the
existence of physical longitudinal and time-like photons*. In: **Higher
symmetry electrodynamics**: a collection of AIAS papers. [Special Issue. **Journal
of New Energy**.] 2000. p. 7-1 – 7-5.